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Jayden Brown
Jayden Brown

Out Of Sight, Out Of Mind

But the invisible homeless cannot simply fly away to never-never land, or pull themselves up by their bootstraps, or make a wish upon a star. These homeless people are children, and they are not always in the inner cities, as Yvonne Vissing shows in this poignant study of families, housing, and poverty. As many as a third of our nation's homeless are found in rural and small-town America. They are all too commonly out of sight-and out of mind.

Out of Sight, Out of Mind

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Possibly it is because our Fergusons are hidden deep in the bush, accessible only by chartered float plane: 49 per cent of First Nations members live on remote reserves. Those who do live in urban centres are mostly confined to a few cities in the Prairies. Fewer than 40,000 live in Toronto, not even one per cent of the total population of the Greater Toronto Area. Our racial problems are literally over the horizon, out of sight and out of mind.

In a recent study titled "How Non-Consumption Shapes Desire," Ayelet Fishbach, Professor of Behavioral Science and Marketing at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and co-author Xianchi Dai of Chinese University of Hong Kong, found if a person is aware of a substitute for something, the longer they have gone without, the weaker their desire for the non-consumed good becomes. So the adage "Out of sight, out of mind" is accurate.

Conversely, when no substitute comes to mind, the longer non-consumption period suggests to a person that their need has been neglected, and their desire becomes stronger. Therefore, "Absence makes the heart grow fonder" is the fitting sentiment in this situation.

"Presenting this question is intended to increase consumers' craving for goods. Based on our findings, the question would be effective only when no substitutes come to the consumer's mind and as long as the non-consumption appears outside of personal control," Fishbach says.

Abstract:Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations represent an essential tool in the toolbox of modern chemistry, enabling the prediction of experimental observables for a variety of chemical systems and processes and majorly impacting the study of biological membranes. However, the chemical diversity of complex lipids beyond phospholipids brings new challenges to well-established protocols used in MD simulations of soft matter and requires continuous assessment to ensure simulation reproducibility and minimize unphysical behavior. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are highly charged glycolipids whose aggregation in a lamellar arrangement requires the binding of numerous cations to oppositely charged groups deep inside the membrane. The delicate balance between the fully hydrated carbohydrate region and the smaller hydrophobic core makes LPS membranes very sensitive to the choice of equilibration protocol. In this work, we show that the protocol successfully used to equilibrate phospholipid bilayers when applied to complex lipopolysaccharide membranes occasionally leads to a small expansion of the simulation box very early in the equilibration phase. Although the use of a barostat algorithm controls the system dimension and particle distances according to the target pressure, fluctuation in the fleeting pressure occasionally enables a few water molecules to trickle into the hydrophobic region of the membrane, with spurious solvent buildup. We show that this effect stems from the initial steps of NPT equilibration, where initial pressure can be fairly high. This can be solved with the use of a stepwise-thermalization NVT/NPT protocol, as demonstrated for atomistic MD simulations of LPS/DPPE and lipid-A membranes in the presence of different salts using an extension of the GROMOS forcefield within the GROMACS software. This equilibration protocol should be standard procedure for the generation of consistent structural ensembles of charged glycolipids starting from atomic coordinates not previously pre-equilibrated. Although different ways to deal with this issue can be envisioned, we investigated one alternative that could be readily available in major MD engines with general users in mind.Keywords: barostat effect; GROMACS; GROMOS force field; bacterial outer membranes; lipopolysaccharide (LPS); lipid-A 041b061a72




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